Types of archaeological dating methods
In general, they were relatively small-bodied, with large chewing teeth but reduced (sometimes highly reduced) canine teeth.
They had small (ape-sized) braincases and rather protruding faces.
Found near Kenya’s Lake Turkana in a layer of rock dating to approximately 3.3 mya, during the middle of the Pliocene Epoch (5.3 million to 2.6 million years ago), the first tools—primitive hammers, anvils, and cutting tools—predate the emergence of .
Cranial remains dating to slightly less than 2 mya have been discovered at Koobi Fora, Kenya.
Ardi’s skeleton, which is more than 50 percent complete, dates to about 4.4 mya.In contrast, Lucy’s skeleton is 40 percent complete and dates to about 3.2 mya.Lucy’s pelvis is more humanlike, and the design of her knee joint suggests that she walked upright in a manner similar to that of modern humans.No consensus has developed on exactly where this find fits into the human family tree (or, more appropriately, “family bush”), but, even if it is a hominin, it is highly unlikely to be a direct ancestor of , then, emphasizes an evolutionary pattern that seems to have been a characteristic of the tribe Hominini from the very start—a pattern that aligns it with what is observed in most other evolutionarily successful groups of mammals.Human evolution, it appears, has consistently been a process of trial and error.